Peshawar is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It also serves as the administrative centre and economic hub for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Situated in a broad valley near the eastern end of the historic Khyber Pass, close to the border with Afghanistan, Peshawar's recorded history dates back to at least 539 B.C.E., making it the oldest city in Pakistan and one of the oldest in South Asia. With a population of 1,970,042 according to the 2017 census, Peshawar is the largest city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the sixth-largest in Pakistan.Peshawar features a semi-arid climate, with very hot summers and mild winters. Winter in Peshawar starts in November and ends in late March, though it sometimes extends into mid-April, while the summer months are from mid-May to mid-September. The mean maximum summer temperature surpasses 40 °C (104 °F) during the hottest month, and the mean minimum temperature is 25 °C (77 °F). The mean minimum temperature during the coolest month is 4 °C (39 °F), while the maximum is 18.3 °C (64.9 °F).